Explain the production process.
It plays a very important role in mechanical engineering. The production process is the process followed in a plant for converting semi-finished products or raw materials into finished products or raw materials into finished products.
The art of converting raw material into finished goods with the application of different types of tools, equipment, machine tools, manufacturing setups, and manufacturing processes, is known as production.
Generally, there are three basic types of the production system that are given as under.
- Job production
- Batch production
- Mass production
Definition of production process.
Job production comprises of an operator or group of operators to work on a single job and complete it before proceeding to the next similar or different job.
The production requirement in the job production system is extremely low. It requires the fixed type of layout for developing the same products.
Manufacturing of products (less in number say 300 to 900) with a variety of similar parts with very little variation in size and shape is called batch production.
Whenever the production of the batch is over, the same manufacturing facility is used for the production of other batch product or items.
The batch may be for once or of periodical type or of repeated kinds after some irregular interval. Such manufacturing concepts are leading to GT and FMS technology. Manufacturing of products, in this case, requires process functional layout.
Whereas mass production involves the production of a large number of identical products (say more than 60000) that needs line layout type of plant layout which is the highly rigid type and involves automation and a huge amount of investment in special purpose machines to increase the production.
What is process planning?
Process planning consists of the selection of means of production (machine-tools, cutting tools, presses, jigs, fixtures, measuring tools etc.), establishing the efficient sequence of operation, determination of changes in form, dimension or finish of the machine tools in addition to the specification of the actions of the operator.
It includes the calculation of the machining time, as well as the required skill of the operator. It also establishes an efficient sequence of manufacturing steps for minimizing material handling which ensures that the work will be done at the minimum cost and at maximum productivity.
The basic concepts of process planning are generally concerned with the machining only. Although these concepts may also be extended to other processes such as casting, forging, sheet metal forming, assembling and heat treatment as well.
Final words about the production process.
The manufacturing process is that part of the production process which is directly concerned with the change of form or dimensions of the part being produced. It does not include the transportation, handling or storage of parts, as they are not directly concerned with the changes in the form or dimensions of the part produced.