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The importance of the science of measurement as a tool for scientific research (by which accurate and reliable information can be obtained) was emphasized by Galileo and Gvethe. 

This is essential for solving almost all technical problems in the field of engineering in general, and in production engineering and experimental design in particular. 

The design engineer should not only check his design from the point of view of strength or economical production, but he should also keep in mind how the dimensions specified can be checked or measured. 

Unfortunately, a considerable amount of engineering work is still being executed without realizing the importance of inspection and quality control for improving the function of product and achieving the economical production. 

Higher productivity and accuracy is called for by the present manufacturing techniques. This cannot be achieved unless the science of metrology is understood, introduced and applied in industries.

Improving the quality of production necessitates proportional improvement of the measuring accuracy, and marking out of components before machining and the in-process and post process control of the dimensional and geometrical accuracies of the product.

Proper gauges should be designed and used for rapid and effective inspection. Also automation and automatic control, which are the modem trends for future developments, are based on measurement. Means for automatic gauging as well as for position and displacement measurement with feedback control have to be provided. 

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