About Metallization failures
Metallization failures include failures associated with contacts and interconnections.
Interconnecting metal stripes are subject to thinning, corrosion, and electro-migration, a mass transport-induced type of damage that leads to void formation and open circuiting.
Cracks and defects
Recently a troublesome failure mechanism known as stress voiding has surfaced in sub-micrometer-wide Al interconnections. It is apparently caused by residual stress in the metal film and is manifested by slit like cracks at grain boundaries that eventually cause open circuits. Even unpowered chips are prone to such degradation.